VEGETABLE CHEMICAL LANDSCAPE

Ekim 09, 2018, 5:39 pm
7 dakika

 

Prof. Dr. Nazan Apaydın Demir
Manager of Cosmetic Products Application and Research Center
Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University

 

 

 

The world’s plant-based chemical landscape is an extremely important issue. Every country needs a plan on this issue in the long
run. This article will try to look at the medicinal and aromatic plant market and the important outputs of this market, medicine,
cosmetics and food. These markets are currently the most active market on the planet and have a steady upward trend. While the
size of this market was 550 billion Dollars in 2004, it reached 900 billion Dollars in 2008. Despite the global crises, this tendency to
rise has never declined.

Worldwide Status
It is thought that all plants in the world are 320 thousand pieces. Of these, some 270.000 have been identified. Of these, about
70.000 people are benefiting and about 3.000 are food sources. 25.000 of them are used for therapeutic purposes. 5.000 are used
for industrial purposes. It is thought that about 15.000 are ornamental plants.

Medical aromatic plants that are the subject of world trade; coffee, sesame, garlic, red pepper, allspice, black pepper, green tea,
mustard seeds, poppy seeds, ginger, sahlep and cumin. The distribution of these plants on the earth is not equal. The richest areas
in terms of species diversity are the tropical regions. The number of species towards poles is decreasing. The number of medicinal
plants that are popular in the world is 4.000-6.000. The number of traded species is around 3.000.

Plants for therapeutic use:
•Atropine: Atropa belladonna.
•Caffeine: Coffea arabica.
•Cocaine: Erytroxxylum coca.
•Ephedrine: Ephedra species.
•Morphine and codeine: Papaver somniferum.
• Quinin: Cinchona cordifolia Mutis ex Humb.
• Salina (Salisin) Uses of Salix species: Original or modified forms can be given as examples by 2001-Fabricant and Farnsworth.

This necessitated the designation of the active constituents of medical and aromatic plants. Parallel to the development of the
science of chemistry, plant chemistry has been fast progressing. Vitamins, as well as therapeutic effects, contribute to beauty.

The discovery of vitamins in the late twentieth century has opened new pages in the scientific world. The discovery of vitamins
has become a milestone and the field has become a favorite research area. In plant biochemical researches, plants that are
widely used by the public are preferred.

For thousands of years, plants used for purposes such as beauty, odor, staining and treatment have begun to be examined under
laboratory conditions. The development of new purification techniques, the introduction of precision measuring devices, the
introduction of biochemistry and biotechnology have made it possible to conduct more precise research.

These studies have opened the doors of a magical world and reconciled man with nature. Later on, the order of research will be
wild flowers growing in the forests and plains. These plants, not played with genetics, will gain value and provide natural solutions
for the most important needs of the human being. They will help to protect youth, body and soul health.

Plant-Derived Perfumes
History the Beginning of Sumerians is a word used by historians. Similarly, it would be appropriate to start the perfume with a
perfume bottle from Sumer. This find, which was discovered in excavations in Mesopotamia, is very important. This ox-headed
object is not just intended for perfume. This ox-shaped object is not only a perfume but also an ornamental material and has not
been used for religious reasons. This extraordinary object witnesses a very important time. The perfume was developed by Sumer
4,000 years ago. The Sumerians are the first civilizations in the world to develop distillation and extraction techniques.

With primitive distillation techniques they have managed to extract the essence of fragrant plants. Before the perfume, incense
was used to obtain a beautiful fragrance. After the discovery of fire, people who burn trees and shrubs have noticed that some
plants have smelled good. But it took them many years to recognize these trees and plants and make incense to them.

It is known that the Chinese knew to burn incense in the neolithic period and that since 2000 BC they used incense for religious
purposes. The world’s oldest perfume maker, named in the written record, is a Babylonian female chemist named Tapputi who
lived in 2000 BC. Taputi is considered the initiator of the chemistry profession.

In 2005, during the excavations in the town of Pyrgos in Northern Cyprus, a perfume workshop remained about 4000 years ago.
This workshop has distillation devices. Perfume has also been used as medicine for hundreds of years and has been especially
helpful in solving psychological problems.

In addition to their use as plants, medicines, perfumes and food, they are also used in textiles. Among the Islamic scholars, Ibni
Sina (who first obtained rose water by extraction) and Ibni Cabir contributed greatly to the science of medicine and chemistry. It
is known that Ibni Cabir encodes many formulas and deals with hair dyes just before his death.

Cabir Bin Hayyan described in the eighth century how to do distillation using alembik.

Current Situation in Our Country
The return to nature that emerged in industrially developed countries has made it possible to create a new and powerful field. It
has important advantages in terms of its geographical position and virgin ecology. Conventional products based on plants,
primarily natural perfumes, natural stains, medicines, phytotherapy and food additives, can create a new, comprehensive and
environmentally friendly production area that encompasses every segment.

We can create a great power in the world market with natural products that grow in different altitudes, temperatures and different
climates. It is not a dream but an easily accessible goal. Innovation is the key to the production and development of all sciences.
I must forget that those ‘‘Who Have Mastered the Science of Chemistry Also Dominate the World.’’

 

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